Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules.

Convergent Evolution is a kind of evolution where organisms evolve structures that have similar (analogous) structures or functions in spite of their evolutionary ancestors being very dissimilar or unrelated

Divergent Evolution is the process by which an interbreeding population or species diverges into two or more descendant species, resulting in once similar or related species to become more and more dissimilar


There are numerous structures in the concepts surrounding evolution and in evolution itself. Looking into these structures could give me a better understanding to how I can apply them to new ideas and creating my own interpretations of these structures

In anatomy

  • Analogous Structures: The various structures in different species having the same function but have evolved separately, thus do not share common ancestor. For example insect wings and bird wings for flight (applied in the concept of convergent evolution)
  • Homologous Structures: the structures in different species with a common ancestor or developmental origin. Though they may not necessarily perform the same function, for example the forelimbs of humans and bats are homologous structures. (applied in the concept on divergent evolution)
  • Bone Structures: Vertebrates and Invertebrates, Bipeds, quadrupeds, etc..
  • Vestigial Structures: an organ or part of the body which is greatly reduced from the original ancestral form and is no longer functional or is of reduced or altered function (the human appendix). They provide a clue to the evolutionary history of a species because they are remnants of structures found in the ancestral species.


Artificial Evolution

Gene Mapping – Human Genome Project

  • The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.

Genome Editing – CRISPR-Cas9

  • Genome editing (also called gene editing) is a group of technologies that give scientists the ability to change an organism’s DNA. These technologies allow genetic material to be added, removed, or altered at particular locations in the genome.
  • CRISPR-Cas9 was adapted from a naturally occurring genome editing system in bacteria. The bacteria capture snippets of DNA from invading viruses and use them to create DNA segments known as CRISPR arrays.